Иванов-Петров Александр (ivanov_petrov) wrote,
Иванов-Петров Александр
ivanov_petrov

Хорошая книга по истории науки

Косарева 1989 Социокультурный генезис науки
ftp://data.prao.ru:8021/Astro_archive/Books/Kosareva89.djvu
Основная идея: для создания современной науки нужен был новый тип человека, которого не было в Средние века. Что за тип, как создавался.


Materials in eighteenth-century science: a historical ontology
2007 Ursula Klein, Wolfgang Lefevre
http://books.google.ru/books?id=7Etpcz3uhJgC&dq=materials+ursula+klein&source=gbs_navlinks_s
http://www.ircps.org/publications/aestimatio/pdf/Volume4/2007-06-01_TaylorBW.pdf
О химической революции, история появаления самых известных материалов, созданных европейской химией. В частности, роль Парацельса в становлении химии, целый этап парацельсианских химиков в 17 в. Сравнение принципов классификации у химиков 18 в. и у Линнея - Линней жестче. Речь об изменении онтологии мира и влиянии этого на классификацию химических субстанций. До 1700 делили мир по царствам природы, а с химкопонентами работали преимущественно аптекари нехимическими методами - и мир представлялся одним образом. Потом произошло изменение в сознании в первую очередь, которое повлекло за собой иные способы классификации и постепенно под них подверствавшиеся способы действий - и стали группировать вещества по химическому сходству.



In the recent historical and philosophical discussion about discursive formations, structures of kinds, and historical ontology, taxonomic change has mostly been
regarded as the result of changes of knowledge, episteme, lexical structure, social interests, power, and ethics.
Unlike the Linnaean taxonomy of plants, none of the eighteenth-century chemical classi?cations provided a comprehensive system covering all known substances. None of them singled out an invariable set of characters for ordering all substances, such as number, ?gure, position, and proportion of the parts of fructification organs, the set used in Linnaeus’s taxonomy. And none of them introduced a sophisticated technical terminology for the taxonomic ranks comparable to that of Linnaeus.



Как биология обгоняла химию в 18 веке, и как отстала. Важное различение - в парацельсовой химии 16 века вещества понимались как генераторы, как проивзодящие силы, порождающие некие совокупности иных веществ. Потом это было переосмыслено как сложные вещества, которые следует разлагать на простые. Понятие "активного вещества", генератора - исчезло, химия стала мертвой - ну, до появление первых всхлипов в синергетике. Таксономия: "В классе солей Бергман выделил 4 класса - класс кислот, класс спиртов, класс нейтральный солей и класс средних солей". Было проведено общее разделение: парацельсовы классы ртуть, сера и соль считались подразделами общего типа - земли. Соотношение между классификацией веществ и химической революцией Лавуазье. Химическая революция изменила понимание аналогий в химии и системы классификации, но не очень сильно и не уничтожила эти аналогии вовсе. Химия Лавуазье не уничтожила классификацию, она предложила несколько иную классификацию, чем химия флогистона.

Биномиальная номенклатура: By means of these columns it was thus ruled that 1) acids must be given a binomial name, 20 the second component of which marks the species; 2) salts, too, must be given a binomial name, the first component of which marks the genus and is derived from this specifying component of the acid name, whereas the second one marks the species and is derived from the name of the salifiable base that entered into the combination; 3) the salifiable bases must be given simple names.

Classification was a necessary condition for the nomenclature of the Methode. ...Above all, the Logique of Etienne Bonnot Condillac (1715–1780) and the botanical nomenclature of Linnaeus provided ideas and paradigms for the development of such rules and are therefore discussed as such a source in almost every work on the Methode. The significance of Linnaeus’ botanical nomenclature is mainly its binomial naming, which apparently served as a model for the authors of the Methode. ...This analysis first shows the ambition of Lavoisier and his collaborators to extend classification according to composition to plant substances, and, second, their failure in terms of collective acceptance.

Химия входила в естественную историю, проказано становление витализма, идеи Шталя, Фуркруа, Кильмейера, Берцелиуса и пр. Особое внимание на онтологический сдвиг, когда меняется представление об онтологии. Аналитическая программа Лавуазье по классифицированию растительных и животных веществ. Попытки применить количественную химию Лавуазье к органическим субстратам закончились неудачей: граница научной программы. Три смещения онтологии: около 1700, 1800 и 1830 гг. Маргинализация предшествующей истории - вслед за онтологическими смещениями.

The list of material substances studied by eighteenth-century chemists excluded the philosopher’s stone, philosophical mercury, the elixir of life, or other secret sub-
stances of medieval and early modern transmutational alchemy as well as the pure stoichiometric compounds of nineteenth-century chemistry, which were beyond the
horizon of their practice. In the decades around 1700 the chemists’ concern with the transmutation of metals and the secret substances triggering transmutation began to
decline. ... Circulating between different social sites, the eighteenth-century chemical substances were boundary objects that linked together academic chemists, apothecaries, distillers, miners, metallurgists, assayers, dyers, and potters as well as state commissioners, merchants, and polite connoisseurs of the expanding luxury market. ...Experimental history, technological inquiry, and analytical experimental philosophy were the three main types of investigative practices in eighteenth-century chemistry that evolved around the many faces of chemical substances. ...In other words, botany was a prominent discipline in the eighteenth century because it provided a space for the realization of the episteme of that period. ...This began to change when Lavoisier introduced the analytical technique of complete combustion. In other words, Lavoisier did not introduce organic elemental analysis from scratch, but rather proposed a new technique along with new conceptual resources built into that technique.

In addition to their persistent naturalistic and artisanal identification and classification of plant substances on both the lowest and highest taxonomic ranks, chemists also classified plant substances from philosophical and theoretical perspectives. ...By “materiality” we mean not merely the sensory stimuli provided by substances, but, in particular, their potential for transformation in series of chemical experiments. Metals, alkalis, earths, acids, salts, alloys, sulfur and compounds of sulfur, and watery solutions — the substances included in E. F. Geoffroy’s table of affinities of 1718 as well as in the 1787 table of chemical nomenclature—could be subjected to
cycles of decomposition and recomposition. ...By contrast, plant and animal materials did not display these features. Reversible decompositions and recompositions and replacement reactions were not found in chemical operations performed with chemically extracted plant and animal substances.

Lavoisier and his collaborators created a comprehensive and systematic taxonomy of pure chemical substances, based on chemical analysis and knowledge of elemental composition. In so doing, they clearly distinguished between chemical compounds and simple indecomposable substances, and they further extended the web of pure substances to new groups.



Ursula Klein, E. C. Spary - Materials and Expertise in Early Modern Europe: Between Market and Laboratory
http://ebookee.org/Ursula-Klein-E-C-Spary-Materials-and-Expertise-in-Early-Modern-Europe-Between-Market-and-Laboratory_853857.html

Science and Its History Agassi, Joseph 2008
http://www.springer.com/new+%26+forthcoming+titles+%28default%29/book/978-1-4020-5631-4
http://books.google.ru/books?id=HZkKgGOq6YEC&dq=SCIENCE+AND+ITS+HISTORY+Agassi&source=gbs_navlinks_s
http://www.e-reading.org.ua/book.php?book=142128

Карпов Натурфилософия Аристотеля
http://relig-library.pstu.ru/modules.php?name=177

Вл. Карпов Витализм и задачи научной биологии в вопросе о жизни
http://ec-dejavu.ru/v/Vitalism_Karpov.html

Cognitive Models of Science Ronald N. Giere
http://www.upress.umn.edu/Books/G/giere_cognitive.html
http://books.google.ru/books?id=uYuIT_8oC44C&dq=Cognitive+Models+of+Science&source=gbs_navlinks_s

Eamon Science and Secrets of Nature
http://press.princeton.edu/titles/5510.html
http://homepages.tscnet.com/omard1/jp_eamon.html
http://books.google.ru/books?id=rB3cIVVq-YUC&dq=Eamon+Science+and+Secrets+of+Nature&source=gbs_navlinks_s

Свасьян К.А. Становление европейской науки
http://www.bookshunt.ru/b104548_stanovlenie_evropejskoj_nauki

Golinski 2005 Making natural knowledge: constructivism and the history of science
http://books.google.ru/books?id=SZcCElvmF7sC&dq=Golinski+Making+Natural+Knowledge&source=gbs_navlinks_s

The science of describing: natural history in Renaissance Europe
Brian W. Ogilvie
http://books.google.ru/books?id=f8FmrXT1jdIC&dq=ogilvie+2006+natural+history&source=gbs_navlinks_s
http://works.bepress.com/brian_ogilvie/1/

Ахутин А.В. История принципов физического эксперимента
Понятие "природа" в античности и в новое время

о Shapin-Schaffer'е не говорю - это ясно
как и Scott Atran
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scott_Atran
Cognitive Foundations of Natural History: Towards an Anthropology of Science (1990)
In Gods We Trust: The Evolutionary Landscape of Religion (2002)

Klein, Ursula. "'Styles of experimentation and alchemical matter theory in the scientific revolution'. Essay r. of: Newman, William R.: Atoms and alchemy : chymistry and the experimental origins of the scientific revolution. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press 2006. " Metascience 16 (2 2007)

Klein, Ursula. "Experiments at the intersection of experimental history, technological inquiry and conceptually driven analysis: a case study from early nineteenth-century France. " Perspectives on Science 13 (1 2005)

Klein, Ursula. "Shifting ontologies, changing classifications: plant materials from 1700 to 1830. " Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 36A (2 2005)

Klein, Ursula. "'Working and knowing in the history of science, technology and medicine'. Essay review of: Pickstone, John V.: Ways of knowing : a new history of science, technology and medicine. Manchester: Manchester Univ. Press 2000. " Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 35A (1 2004)

Klein, Ursula. "Not a pure science: chemistry in the 18th and 19th centuries. " Science 306 (5698 2004)

Klein, Ursula. "Experimental history and Herman Boerhaave’s chemistry of plants. " Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 34C (4 2003)

Klein, Ursula . "The creative power of paper tools in nineteenth-century chemistry." In: Tools and modes of representation in the laboratory sciences, eds.: Klein, Ursula. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 2001.

Klein, Ursula. "Techniques of modelling and paper tools in classical chemistry." In: Models as mediators, eds.: Morgan, Mary S.; Morrison, Margret C.. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1999.

Klein, Ursula. "Paving a way through the jungle of organic chemistry : experimenting within changing systems of order." In: Experimental Essays : Versuche zum Experiment, eds.: Heidelberger, Michael; Steinle, Friedrich. Baden-Baden: Nomos-Verlag, 1998.
Klein, Ursula. "Berzelian formulas as paper tools in early nineteenth-century chemistry. " Foundations of Chemistry 3 (1 2001)

Klein, Ursula. "Experiment, Spiritus und okkulte Qualitaten in der Philosophie Francis Bacons. " Philosophia Naturalis 33 (2 1996)
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